Strategies for Minimizing Long-Term Capital Gains Taxes under Tax Reform by Adam Slavin, CPA
Posted on September 17, 2018 by Adam Slavin
Thanks to the equity market’s wild bull market run since bottoming out in 2009, many investors’ portfolios look rather rosy. However, with these impressive returns come taxes on capital gains. While the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act retains the 0%, 15%, and 20% tax rates on qualified dividends and long-term capital gains resulting from the sale of assets held for more than one year, the new law changes the income brackets that apply to these rates. For 2018 through 2025, the following rates will apply based on an individual’s taxable income and filing status:
|Tax Rate||Single Filers||Married Filing Jointly|
|0%||$0 to $38,600||$0 to $77,200|
|15%||$38,601 to $425,800||$77,200 to $479,000|
|20%||$425,801 and above||$479,001 and above|
Taxpayers should note that these brackets apply only to long-term capital gains and dividends, which may also be subject to the 3.8 percent Net Investment Income Tax (NIIT) for high-income earners. Conversely, the tax rates for short-term capital gains resulting from the sale of assets held for one year or less will continue to be tied to the seven ordinary income tax brackets, which beginning in 2018 are reduced to 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% or 37%.
Although these changes under the new law will result in many taxpayers owing less to the federal government, it is important for high-income taxpayers, in particular, to meet with their advisors and accountants and implement strategies that could reduce their long-term capital gain tax liabilities even further.
For example, taxpayers may take advantage of the TCJA’s higher standard deduction, which nearly doubles in 2018 to $12,000 for single filers and $24,000 for married filing jointly, in order to reduce their taxable income (including long-term gains and dividends) to a lower threshold and qualify for a lower tax rate.
Another strategy available to taxpayers is to remove appreciated assets and any related capital gains from their investment portfolios. One option is to donate appreciate assets held for more than one year to a charity or a donor-advised fund. The assets can continue to grow tax-free to the charity and provide the taxpayers with an immediate charitable deduction, subject to limitations. Alternatively, taxpayers may remove appreciated assets from their taxable income by gifting them to family members. In fact, in 2018, individuals may gift up to $15,000 in cash or assets to as many people as they choose without incurring gift taxes. When the taxpayer is married, he or she can annually gift as much as $30,000 per recipient tax-free. The amount of this gift tax exclusion is adjusted annually for inflation.
Finally, the tried and true method of harvesting capital losses to offset capital gains may be difficult to employ since many investors will be hard-pressed to find losses after the recent market run-ups. Yet it is critical for investors to pay attention to their capital gains and be prepared to take action if, and when, the amount of their resulting tax liability is beyond their budget.
About the Author: Adam Slavin, CPA, is a senior manager with Berkowitz Pollack Brant’s Tax Services practices, where he provides tax planning and consulting services to high-net-worth individuals and closely held business. He can be reached at the CPA firm’s Boca Raton, Fla., office at (561) 361-2000 or via email at email@example.com.